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Long-Term Strategies LT-LEDS. The Katowice climate package. Political violence is uncommon, though very large demonstrations may occur in Paris and other French cities simultaneously.
These demonstrations, usually managed by a strong police presence, can turn confrontational and escalate into violence. Most French rulers since the Middle Ages made a point of leaving their mark on a city that, contrary to many other of the world's capitals, has never been destroyed by catastrophe or war.
In modernising its infrastructure through the centuries, Paris has preserved even its earliest history in its street map. Modern Paris owes much of its downtown plan and architectural harmony to Napoleon III and his Prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann.
Between and they rebuilt the city centre, created the wide downtown boulevards and squares where the boulevards intersected, imposed standard facades along the boulevards, and required that the facades be built of the distinctive cream-grey " Paris stone ".
They also built the major parks around the city centre. Paris' urbanism laws have been under strict control since the early 17th century,  particularly where street-front alignment, building height and building distribution is concerned.
The most expensive residential streets in Paris in by average price per square meter were Avenue Montaigne 8th arrondissement , at 22, Euros per square meter; Place Dauphine 1st arrondissement; 20, euros and Rue de Furstemberg 6th arrondissement at 18, Euros per square meter.
Among these, 1,, Sixty-two percent of its buildings date from and before, 20 percent were built between and , and only 18 percent of the buildings remaining were built after that date.
Paris averages 1. Its distribution varies widely throughout the city, from 2. On the night of 8—9 February , during a period of cold weather, a Paris NGO conducted its annual citywide count of homeless persons.
They counted 3, homeless persons in Paris, of whom twelve percent were women. More than half had been homeless for more than a year.
This was an increase of persons since Aside from the 20th-century addition of the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois de Vincennes and the Paris heliport, Paris' administrative limits have remained unchanged since A greater administrative Seine department had been governing Paris and its suburbs since its creation in , but the rising suburban population had made it difficult to maintain as a unique entity.
Paris' disconnect with its suburbs, its lack of suburban transportation, in particular, became all too apparent with the Paris agglomeration's growth.
These areas, quartiers sensibles "sensitive quarters" , are in northern and eastern Paris, namely around its Goutte d'Or and Belleville neighbourhoods.
To the north of the city, they are grouped mainly in the Seine-Saint-Denis department , and to a lesser extreme to the east in the Val-d'Oise department.
The Paris agglomeration's urban sociology is basically that of 19th-century Paris: its fortuned classes are situated in its west and southwest, and its middle-to-lower classes are in its north and east.
The official estimated population of the City of Paris was 2,, as of 1 January , according to the INSEE , the official French statistical agency.
This is a decline of 59, from , close to the total population of the 5th arrondissement. Paris is the fourth largest municipality in the European Union, following Berlin , Madrid and Rome.
Eurostat places Paris 6. The population of Paris today is lower than its historical peak of 2. Factors in the migration included de-industrialisation , high rent, the gentrification of many inner quarters, the transformation of living space into offices, and greater affluence among working families.
The city's population loss came to a temporary halt at the beginning of the 21st century; the population increased from 2,, in to 2,, in , before declining again slightly in According to Eurostat , the EU statistical agency, in the Commune of Paris was the most densely populated city in the European Union, with 21, people per square kilometre within the city limits the NUTS-3 statistical area , ahead of Inner London West, which had 10, people per square kilometre.
According to the same census, three departments bordering Paris, Hauts-de-Seine , Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne , had population densities of over 10, people per square kilometre, ranking among the 10 most densely populated areas of the EU.
According to the French census, , residents of the City of Paris, or A further , in the City of Paris and in , in the Paris Region were born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth.
The remaining group, people born in foreign countries with no French citizenship at birth, are those defined as immigrants under French law.
According to the census, , residents of the City of Paris were immigrants from Europe , , were immigrants from the Maghreb , 70, from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt , 5, from Turkey , 91, from Asia outside Turkey , 38, from the Americas , and 1, from the South Pacific.
In the Paris Region, , residents were immigrants from Europe , , were immigrants from the Maghreb , , from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt , 69, from Turkey , , from Asia outside Turkey , , from the Americas , and 2, from the South Pacific.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Paris was the largest Catholic city in the world. In the same survey, 7 percent of residents identified themselves as Muslims, 4 percent as Protestants, 2 percent as Jewish, and 25 percent as without religion.
According to the INSEE, between 4 and 5 million French residents were born or had at least one parent born in a predominantly Muslim country, particularly Algeria , Morocco , and Tunisia.
An IFOP survey in reported that, of immigrants from these predominantly Muslim countries, 25 percent went to the mosque regularly; 41 percent practised the religion, and 34 percent were believers but did not practice the religion.
The Jewish population of the Paris Region was estimated in to be ,, the largest concentration of Jews in the world outside of Israel and the United States.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO has had its headquarters in Paris since November Paris is also the home of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD.
The economy of the City of Paris is based largely on services and commerce; of the , enterprises in the city, At the census, The Paris Region had 5.
The largest of these, in terms of number of employees, is known in French as the QCA, or quartier central des affaires ; it is in the western part of the City of Paris, in the 2nd, 8th, 9th, 16th, and 18th arrondissements.
The largest sectors of activity in the central business district were finance and insurance 16 percent of employees in the district and business services 15 percent.
The district also includes a large concentration of department stores, shopping areas, hotels and restaurants, as well a government offices and ministries.
In , it was the workplace of , employees, of whom 38 percent worked in finance and insurance, 16 percent in business support services. Another district, including Boulogne-Billancourt , Issy-les-Moulineaux and the southern part of the 15th arrondissement, is a centre of activity for the media and information technology.
The Paris Region economy has gradually shifted from industry to high-value-added service industries finance , IT services and high-tech manufacturing electronics, optics, aerospace, etc.
In the worldwide cost of living survey by the Economist Intelligence Unit , based on a survey made in September , Paris ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world, and the second most expensive in Europe, after Zurich.
In , Paris was the most expensive city in the world with Singapore and Hong Kong. Station F is a business incubator for startups, located in 13th arrondissement of Paris.
Noted as the world's largest startup facility. According to INSEE figures, The majority of Paris' salaried employees fill , businesses services jobs, concentrated in the north-western 8th, 16th and 17th arrondissements.
The majority of Paris' healthcare and social workers work at the hospitals and social housing concentrated in the peripheral 13th, 14th, 18th, 19th and 20th arrondissements.
Paris' manufacturing is mostly focused in its suburbs, and the city itself has only around 75, manufacturing workers, most of which are in the textile, clothing, leather goods, and shoe trades.
Most of this is due to companies relocating outside the Paris region. The Paris region's aerospace companies employed , The southern Essonne department specialises in science and technology,  and the south-eastern Val-de-Marne , with its wholesale Rungis food market , specialises in food processing and beverages.
Paris' at-census unemployment rate was The provisional unemployment rate in the whole Paris Region was higher: 8.
It ranged from 7. While Paris has some of the richest neighbourhoods in France, it also has some of the poorest, mostly on the eastern side of the city.
Twenty-five percent of residents in the 19th arrondissement lived below the poverty line; 24 percent in the 18th, 22 percent in the 20th and 18 percent in the 10th.
In the city's wealthiest neighbourhood, the 7th arrondissement, 7 percent lived below the poverty line; 8 percent in the 6th arrondissement; and 9 percent in the 16th arrondissement.
Greater Paris , comprising Paris and its three surrounding departments, received 38 million visitors in , a record, measured by hotel arrivals.
Of foreign visitors, the greatest number came from the United States 2. In , measured by the Euromonitor Global Cities Destination Index, Paris was the second-busiest airline destination in the world, with The centre of Paris contains the most visited monuments in the city, including the Notre Dame Cathedral now closed for restoration and the Louvre as well as the Sainte-Chapelle ; Les Invalides , where the tomb of Napoleon is located, and the Eiffel Tower are located on the Left Bank south-west of the centre.
Several other much-visited landmarks are located in the suburbs of the city; the Basilica of St Denis , in Seine-Saint-Denis , is the birthplace of the Gothic style of architecture and the royal necropolis of French kings and queens.
In Greater Paris had 2, hotels, including 94 five-star hotels, with a total of , rooms. The Hotel Meurice , opened for British travellers in , was one of the first luxury hotels in Paris.
In addition to hotels, in Greater Paris had 60, homes registered with Airbnb. The company paid the city government 7. For centuries, Paris has attracted artists from around the world, who arrive in the city to educate themselves and to seek inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources and galleries.
As a result, Paris has acquired a reputation as the "City of Art". Painting and sculpture became the pride of the French monarchy and the French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists to adorn their palaces during the French Baroque and Classicism era.
Sculptors such as Girardon , Coysevox and Coustou acquired reputations as the finest artists in the royal court in 17th-century France.
Pierre Mignard became the first painter to King Louis XIV during this period. This served as France's top art school until The French Revolution and political and social change in France had a profound influence on art in the capital.
Paris was central to the development of Romanticism in art, with painters such as Gericault. Picasso, living in Le Bateau-Lavoir in Montmartre , painted his famous La Famille de Saltimbanques and Les Demoiselles d'Avignon between and The Golden Age of the School of Paris ended between the two world wars.
Photography came to occupy a central role in Parisian Surrealist activity, in the works of Man Ray and Maurice Tabard. The Louvre received 9.
The second-most visited museum in the city, with 3. It attracted 2. It received 1. Theatre traditionally has occupied a large place in Parisian culture, and many of its most popular actors today are also stars of French television.
Run by the Government of France, it performs mostly French classics at the Salle Richelieu in the Palais-Royal at 2 rue de Richelieu, next to the Louvre.
The music hall and cabaret are famous Paris institutions. The Moulin Rouge was opened in It was highly visible because of its large red imitation windmill on its roof, and became the birthplace of the dance known as the French Cancan.
Its stars in the s included the American singer and dancer Josephine Baker. Later, Olympia Paris presented Dalida , Edith Piaf , Marlene Dietrich , Miles Davis , Judy Garland and the Grateful Dead.
The Casino de Paris presented many famous French singers, including Mistinguett , Maurice Chevalier and Tino Rossi.
A half dozen music halls exist today in Paris, attended mostly by visitors to the city. The first book printed in France, Epistolae "Letters" , by Gasparinus de Bergamo Gasparino da Barzizza , was published in Paris in by the press established by Johann Heynlin.
Since then, Paris has been the centre of the French publishing industry, the home of some of the world's best-known writers and poets, and the setting for many classic works of French literature.
Almost all the books published in Paris in the Middle Ages were in Latin, rather than French. Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame inspired the renovation of its setting, the Notre-Dame de Paris.
Between the wars it was the home of many important expatriate writers, including Ernest Hemingway , Samuel Beckett , and, in the s, Milan Kundera.
The winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature , Patrick Modiano who lives in Paris , based most of his literary work on the depiction of the city during World War II and the s—s.
Paris is a city of books and bookstores. In the s, 80 percent of French-language publishing houses were found in Paris, almost all on the Left Bank in the 5th, 6th and 7th arrondissements.
Since that time, because of high prices, some publishers have moved out to the less expensive areas.
There are about bookstores in the 5th arrondissement alone, plus another book stalls along the Seine. Small Paris bookstores are protected against competition from discount booksellers by French law; books, even e-books, cannot be discounted more than five percent below their publisher's cover price.
In the late 12th century, a school of polyphony was established at Notre-Dame. Troubadours , from the south of France, were also popular.
The French royal family and courtiers "disported themselves in masques, ballets, allegorical dances, recitals, and opera and comedy", and a national musical printing house was established.
Carmen has since become one of the most popular and frequently-performed operas in the classical canon. Bal-musette is a style of French music and dance that first became popular in Paris in the s and s; by Paris had some dance halls in the working-class neighbourhoods of the city.
Parisian and Italian musicians who played the accordion adopted the style and established themselves in Auvergnat bars especially in the 19th arrondissement,  and the romantic sounds of the accordion has since become one of the musical icons of the city.
Paris is the spiritual home of gypsy jazz in particular, and many of the Parisian jazzmen who developed in the first half of the 20th century began by playing Bal-musette in the city.
Immediately after the War the Saint-Germain-des-Pres quarter and the nearby Saint-Michel quarter became home to many small jazz clubs, mostly found in cellars because of a lack of space; these included the Caveau des Lorientais, the Club Saint-Germain, the Rose Rouge, the Vieux-Colombier, and the most famous, Le Tabou.
They introduced Parisians to the music of Claude Luter , Boris Vian , Sydney Bechet , Mezz Mezzrow , and Henri Salvador. Most of the clubs closed by the early s, as musical tastes shifted toward rock and roll.
Paris has a big hip hop scene. This music became popular during the s. Later, most of the largest cinemas were divided into multiple, smaller rooms.
Paris' largest cinema room today is in the Grand Rex theatre with 2, seats. Parisians tend to share the same movie-going trends as many of the world's global cities, with cinemas primarily dominated by Hollywood-generated film entertainment.
European and Asian films are also widely shown and appreciated. Since the late 18th century, Paris has been famous for its restaurants and haute cuisine , food meticulously prepared and artfully presented.
A luxury restaurant, La Taverne Anglaise, opened in in the arcades of the Palais-Royal by Antoine Beauvilliers ; it featured an elegant dining room, an extensive menu, linen tablecloths, a large wine list and well-trained waiters; it became a model for future Paris restaurants.
Today, due to Paris' cosmopolitan population, every French regional cuisine and almost every national cuisine in the world can be found there; the city has more than 9, restaurants.
In , of the 27 Michelin three-star restaurants in France, ten are located in Paris. These include both restaurants which serve classical French cuisine, such as L'Ambroisie in the Place des Vosges, and those which serve non-traditional menus, such as L'Astrance , which combines French and Asian cuisines.
In addition to the classical restaurants, Paris has several other kinds of traditional eating places. Its name is said to have come in from the Russian soldiers who occupied the city; "bistro" means "quickly" in Russian , and they wanted their meals served rapidly so they could get back their encampment.
Real bistros are increasingly rare in Paris, due to rising costs, competition from cheaper ethnic restaurants, and different eating habits of Parisian diners.
Beginning with the Paris Exposition of ; it became a popular kind of restaurant which featured beer and other beverages served by young women in the national costume associated with the beverage, particular German costumes for beer.
Since the 19th century, Paris has been an international fashion capital, particularly in the domain of haute couture clothing hand-made to order for private clients.
Paris Fashion Week , held in January and July in the Carrousel du Louvre among other renowned city locations, is one of the top four events on the international fashion calendar.
The other fashion capitals of the world, Milan , London , and New York also host fashion weeks.
The Carnaval de Paris , one of the oldest festivals in Paris, dates back to the Middle Ages. In , around 40 percent of Parisians held a licence -level diploma or higher, the highest proportion in France,  while 13 percent have no diploma, the third-lowest percentage in France.
The University of Paris , founded in the 12th century, is often called the Sorbonne after one of its original medieval colleges.
It was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities in , following the student demonstrations in Most of the campuses today are in the Latin Quarter where the old university was located, while others are scattered around the city and the suburbs.
There are also many business schools, including HEC , INSEAD , ESSEC , and ESCP Europe. The Parisian school of journalism CELSA department of the Paris-Sorbonne University is located in Neuilly-sur-Seine.
The National Institute of Sport and Physical Education , located in the 12th arrondissement, is both a physical education institute and high-level training centre for elite athletes.
There are several academic libraries and archives in Paris. The Sorbonne Library in the 5th arrondissement is the largest university library in Paris.
Paris' most popular sport clubs are the association football club Paris Saint-Germain F. The 80,seat Stade de France , built for the FIFA World Cup , is located just north of Paris in the commune of Saint-Denis.
Paris hosted the and Summer Olympics and will host the Summer Olympics and Paralympic Games. The city also hosted the finals of the FIFA World Cup at the Stade Olympique de Colombes , as well as the FIFA World Cup and the Rugby World Cup Final both at the Stade de France.
Two UEFA Champions League Finals in the current century have also been played in the Stade de France: the and editions. The final stage of the most famous bicycle racing in the world, Tour de France , always finishes in Paris.
Tennis is another popular sport in Paris and throughout France; the French Open , held every year on the red clay of the Roland Garros National Tennis Centre,  is one of the four Grand Slam events of the world professional tennis tour.
The 17,seat Bercy Arena officially named AccorHotels Arena and formerly known as the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy is the venue for the annual Paris Masters ATP Tour tennis tournament and has been a frequent site of national and international tournaments in basketball, boxing, cycling, handball, ice hockey, show jumping and other sports.
The Bercy Arena also hosted the IIHF World Ice Hockey Championship , together with Cologne , Germany. The final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket and EuroBasket were also played in Paris, the latter at the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy.
The basketball team Levallois Metropolitans plays some of its games at the 4, capacity Stade Pierre de Coubertin. Paris is a major rail, highway, and air transport hub.
A central hub of the national rail network, Paris' six major railway stations Gare du Nord , Gare de l'Est , Gare de Lyon , Gare d'Austerlitz , Gare Montparnasse , Gare Saint-Lazare and a minor one Gare de Bercy are connected to three networks: the TGV serving four high-speed rail lines, the normal speed Corail trains, and the suburban rails Transilien.
Paris is a major international air transport hub with the 5th busiest airport system in the world. Together these three airports recorded traffic of Orly Airport, located in the southern suburbs of Paris, replaced Le Bourget as the principal airport of Paris from the s to the s.
Domestically, air travel between Paris and some of France's largest cities such as Lyon , Marseille , or Strasbourg has been in a large measure replaced by high-speed rail due to the opening of several high-speed TGV rail lines from the s.
Internationally, air traffic has increased markedly in recent years between Paris and the Gulf airports, the emerging nations of Africa, Russia, Turkey, Portugal, Italy, and mainland China , whereas noticeable decline has been recorded between Paris and the British Isles , Egypt, Tunisia, and Japan.
The Paris region is the most active water transport area in France, with most of the cargo handled by Ports of Paris in facilities located around Paris.
The rivers Loire, Rhine, Rhone, Meuse, and Scheldt can be reached by canals connecting with the Seine, which include the Canal Saint-Martin , Canal Saint-Denis , and the Canal de l'Ourcq.
These include piste cyclable bike lanes separated from other traffic by physical barriers such as a kerb and bande cyclable a bicycle lane denoted by a painted path on the road.
Electricity is provided to Paris through a peripheral grid fed by multiple sources. From , the Canal de l'Ourcq provided Paris with water from less-polluted rivers to the north-east of the capital.
This system is still a major part of Paris' modern water-supply network. In , Mayor Chirac introduced the motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte to remove dog faeces from Paris streets.
Paris today has more than municipal parks and gardens, covering more than 3, hectares and containing more than , trees. Between and , Emperor Napoleon III and the city's first director of parks and gardens, Jean-Charles Adolphe Alphand , created the Bois de Boulogne , Bois de Vincennes , Parc Montsouris and Parc des Buttes-Chaumont , located at the four points of the compass around the city, as well as many smaller parks, squares and gardens in the Paris's quarters.
Weekly Parkruns take place in the Bois de Boulogne and the Parc Montsouris  . During the Roman era, the city's main cemetery was located to the outskirts of the left bank settlement, but this changed with the rise of Catholic Christianity, where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds for use by their parishes.
With Paris's growth many of these, particularly the city's largest cemetery, the Holy Innocents' Cemetery , were filled to overflowing, creating quite unsanitary conditions for the capital.
When inner-city burials were condemned from , the contents of all Paris' parish cemeteries were transferred to a renovated section of Paris's stone mines outside the "Porte d'Enfer" city gate, today place Denfert-Rochereau in the 14th arrondissement.
After a tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries, the Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon Bonaparte provided a more definitive solution in the creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside the city limits.
It provides health care, teaching, research, prevention, education and emergency medical service in 52 branches of medicine. The hospitals receive more than 5.
AFP, as it is colloquially abbreviated, maintains its headquarters in Paris, as it has since The most-viewed network in France, TF1 , is in nearby Boulogne-Billancourt.
Radio France Internationale , another public broadcaster is also based in the city. Since 9 April , Paris is exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with:  .
Paris has agreements of friendship and co-operation with: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 3 January This article is about the capital of France.
For other uses, see Paris disambiguation. Capital of France. Capital city , department and commune. Clockwise from top: skyline of Paris on the Seine with the Eiffel Tower , Notre-Dame de Paris , the Pont Royal leading to the Louvre , and the Arc de Triomphe.
Coat of arms. Fluctuat nec mergitur "Tossed by the waves but never sunk". See Wiktionary for the name of Paris in various languages other than English and French.
Main articles: History of Paris and Timeline of Paris. Main article: Lutetia. See also: Paris in the Middle Ages , Paris in the 16th century , and Paris in the 17th century.
See also: Paris in the 18th century , Paris during the Second Empire , and Haussmann's renovation of Paris. Main article: Geography of Paris.
Main article: Climate of Paris. Main article: Administration of Paris. See also: Arrondissements of Paris and List of mayors of Paris.
See also: Architecture of Paris , Haussmann's renovation of Paris , Religious buildings in Paris , and List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris region.
Main article: Demographics of Paris. See also: Religious buildings in Paris. Main article: Economy of Paris.
Main article: Tourism in Paris. Main articles: Landmarks in Paris , Historical quarters of Paris , and List of tourist attractions in Paris.
See also: List of most visited museums. Main article: Art in Paris. Main article: List of museums in Paris. Main article: Writers in Paris.
Main articles: Music in Paris and History of music in Paris. See also: List of films set in Paris. See also: French cuisine. Main article: French fashion.
Main article: Education in Paris. Main article: Libraries in Paris. Main article: Transport in Paris. See also: List of railway stations in Paris.
Main articles: List of parks and gardens in Paris and History of Parks and Gardens of Paris. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France.
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Meteo France. August Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques — et records in French. Archived from the original PDF on 27 February The agreement includes commitments from all countries to reduce their emissions and work together to adapt to the impacts of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time.
The Paris Agreement provides a durable framework guiding the global effort for decades to come. To promote this, the agreement establishes two review processes, each on a five-year cycle.
The Paris Agreement marks the beginning of a shift towards a low-carbon world-- there is much more to do. Implementation of the Agreement is essential for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals as it provides a roadmap for climate actions that will reduce emissions and build climate resilience.
The Paris Agreement formally entered into force on 4 November